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Ginkgo biloba extract is derived from the leaves of the world’s most ancient tree - the ginkgo biloba tree. Ginkgo biloba leaf has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to support a variety of cognitive ailments. Mechanism of action studies have suggested that the cognitive enhancing effects of ginkgo biloba extract may be due to its role in regulating brain function, such as sensory processing and attention. Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that ginkgo biloba extract enhanced memory processes such as working memory and memory consolidation by restoring muscarinic receptors responsible for cognitive behavior, and increasing power in areas of the frontal lobe that generate working memory.
Panax quinquefolius, commonly referred to as American ginseng, is a perennial herb that is distributed in the eastern temperate forest areas of North America. Ginseng extracts are widely acknowledged for their effects on the central nervous system by modulating neurotransmission, enhancing memory and learning, and providing neuroprotection. In mechanism of action studies ginsenoside, a natural compound found in ginseng, has been shown to target memory. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, ginseng was associated with a significant enhancement to working memory performance, including spatial working memory. Significant improvements to working memory speed and self-rated calmness were also observed.
It is well established in scientific literature that vitamin B12 plays a central role in functions of the brain and nervous system. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin found in substantial quantities only in foods of animal origin or fortified foods. If the consumption of animal foods is very low or absent in one’s diet, there are very few plant foods containing vitamin B12 making it an essential vitamin to supplement. A longitudinal cohort study on older adults concluded that low vitamin B12 levels were associated with more rapid cognitive decline. In another cross-sectional study conducted on adults, vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with sensory and motor peripheral nerve function impairment, which can lead to a decline in physical function.